What is a “Podiatrist”?

A podiatrist is the person whom performs treatments to improve people’s health by maintaining and improving foot health functions. Some Podiatrists may also perform minor surgery to the feet.and toe nails.

What are “Orthotics”?

“Orthotics” is a general term for a corrective device placed on any part of the body. Orthotics for feet are commonly known as arch supports, insoles or shoe inserts. It is highly recommended that your Orthotics are custom prescribed and fitted by Complete Feet Foot Health Professionals for the optimal comfort, pain reduction and cushioning of your feet. Our own laboratory ensures that your Custom Orthotics have the highest quality comfort and cushioning features. We even guarantee it.

Many basic insoles/orthotics are also available to purchase retail for less complicated foot pain and problems.


Achilles tendonitis.

Achilles tendonitis occurs when there is irritation and inflammation of the large tendon in the back of the ankle. This is a common overuse injury that can lead to small tears within the tendon making it vulnerable to rupture.

Ankle fracture.

While an apparent broken ankle can take many forms it is most commonly a broken bone of the tibia or fibula.

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).

The anterior cruciate ligament’s primary function is to limit joint mobility to protect the knee against injury. There are four ligaments critical to the stability of the knee and the ACL is the most frequently injured of these.


A progressive degenerative disease that generally causes pain and decreases the motion of the joints. There are many different types of arthritis most notably rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.


Arthroscopy is a now common orthopaedic surgical procedure that uses a television camera to see the inside of a joint and perform surgical procedures.

Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis, tinea).

A common fungal infection of the feet.


Bone scan.

A bone scan involves injecting a radioactive tracer into a vein. The tracer is attracted to bone and identifies new areas of growth or damage. It is also used to detect cancer that has spread (metastasized) to the

bones.Bone spur.

Bone spurs (osteophytes) are bony projections that form along joints. Common in arthritis they are often responsible for limitations in joint motion.

Bow legs (Genu Varum).

This often occurs in young children as the result of a growth abnormality in early childhood. In adults it is generally associated with osteoarthritis, and less frequently with Paget’s disease and Rickets.


Bunions are a bony protrusion at the base of the big toe that can be painful and difficult to fit shoes. A bunion, however, is more complicated than simply a bump on the foot and sufferers should seek advice. A bunionectomy is the surgical procedure when a bunion is removed, this a painful operation with a long recovery period, and may in some instances by avoided or pain reduced with orthotic management.


Bursitis is the inflammation or irritation of the bursa. The bursa is a sac filled with lubricating fluid, located between tissues such as bone, muscle, tendons, and skin, that decreases rubbing, friction, and irritation. Most often caused by repetitive, minor impact on the area, or from a sudden, more serious injury. Age also plays a role.



A thickening of the skin usually due to excess pressure and friction on the skin.


Found in almost all joints within the body to allow them to move and glide easily. Cartilage has no nerves and no blood vessels within the tissue.

Claw Toe.

Ill fitting or compression footwear can cause claw toe, hammer toe, or mallet toe deformities. These are conditions that may occur due to wearing compressive footwear.

Closed fracture.

A broken bone that does not penetrate the skin, and as such is at less risk of infection.


A congenital deformity of the feet newborn children. The disorder causes the feet to point down and inwards. If clubfoot is properly treated it can often be fixed in early childhood.


A thickening of the skin which occurs where a bone is rubbing against a hard surface (for example, the big toe rubbing against the side of a shoe). It is a core of hard skin within the skins surface due to excessive direct pin point pressure. A corn is similar to a callus, and can be readily treated by a podiatrist.


Dancer’s Fracture.

A fracture of the fifth metatarsal. The fifth metatarsal is the bone that runs from the midfoot to the base of small toe on the outside of the foot.Diabetic Neuropathy.

A common complication of type 1 and 2 diabetes. Neuropathy is the gradual reduction in sensation in some parts of the body, most often the feet. For this reason, an individual with diabetes should perform their own regular foot checks. Diabetics and neuropathic feet should be periodically examined by a Podiatrist or other health professional to ensure that there is no ulceration or other injury to the feet.

Double Jointed.

A frequently used term used to describe someone of above average flexibility and an increased range of motion at some joints.

Dupuytren’s Contracture.

A condition that occurs in both the hands and feet where fibrous nodules grow in the tissue of the hand and the plantar fascia of the foot. These nodules cause puckering of the skin and may interfere with mobility of the hand or foot affected.



Are small bony protrusions that exist on normal bones as a sign of aging, arthritis, stress or injury.External.
Being outside of something else


Flat Foot.

A condition in which the medial arch of the foot is flattened. This can occur in both children and adults and may lead to pain or discomfort in the feet, ankles, knees or hips. Flat foot can often be managed by the use of foot orthoses.


A fracture is a broken bone.



Gout is a form of arthritis and causes sudden and severe attacks of pain and swelling of the joints, most commonly the big toe joint. Men over the age of 40 are the most common sufferers. Gout can be managed with tablets and diet changes.


Hallux Rigidus.

Arthritis in the big toe has the medical name hallux rigidus. The joint at the base of the big toe is called the metatarophalangeal joint, or MTP joint. This is where the long bone of the forefoot, and the small bone of the big toe meet. This is the most common site of arthritis in the foot.Hallux valgus.

Is when the big toe angles in towards the other toes. This is most common with women who wear unsuitable footwear and is commonly known as bunions.

Hammer toe.

While hammer toe, claw toe, and mallet toe deformities can be congenital or from muscle imbalances and are more often the result of wearing compressive footwear.

Heel spur.

While they are related heel spurs and plantar fasciitis are not the same thing. A heel spur is a hook of bone that can form on the heel bone (calcaneus) and is associated with plantar fasciitis, which is the thickening from the overuse and stress of the plantar fascia–the tissue that forms the arch of the foot.



A device that is worn inside the shoe which may take the form of padding to increase shoe comfort or may incorporate an orthotic device to support and correct any deformity that may be present in the foot.Ingrown toenail.
An ingrown toenail is when the toenail grows into the surrounding tissue. The irritation from the toenail causes swelling of the tissues, inflammation and pain.


Jones fracture.

A Jones fracture is an injury to the fifth metatarsal bone of the foot. The fifth metatarsal bone is at the base of the small toe, and the Jones fracture occurs in the midfoot area (the top of the bone)


Knock-Knees (Genu Valgum).

These most frequently occur in young children and is usually associated with flat feet. In adults it most frequently occurs in rheumatoid arthritis.


Leg length discrepancy.

Differences in the length of the legs can be related to pain in the joints of the legs and back. This difference in leg length can often be managed through the use of foot orthoses.Ligament.

A ligament is type of fibrous tissue which links bone to bone, as opposed to tendons which link muscle to bone.

Lisfranc injury.

The Lisfranc injury is a fracture and dislocation of the joint between the forefoot and midfoot. It is named after Jacques Lisfranc, a surgeon in Napoleon’s army.


Mallet toe.

Refer Hammer Toe.March fracture.

A metatarsal stress fracture is a common cause of foot pain. It is so called because it is most common with people who suddenly increase their activities, such as new recruits into the armed forces.

Metatarsal fracture.

Running from the midfoot to the base of small toe the fifth metatarsal bone is particularly prone to injury. You can feel the proximal end of the fifth metatarsal as the bump over the outside part of the midfoot.


When foot pain occurs under the ball of the foot, the medical term is metatarsalgia.

Morton’s Neuroma.

A benign growth of a nerve’s sheath between the toes is called Morton’s neuroma. Shooting pains or tingling extending into the toe adjacent to the neuroma is a common symptom. Pain is usually most significant with more strenuous activity and when wearing shoes with a narrow toebox that compress the forefoot.


Normal Foot.

Everyone has different feet, that is why orthotic therapy is tailored to the individual’s feet rather than providing an “off the shelf” solution that may or may not meet the individual’s needs.


Open fracture.

An open fracture is when the broken bone penetrates the skin. Because of the risk of infection, there are more often problems associated with healing when a fracture is open to the skin.Orthotics.

These are devices that provide support to parts of your body when it may be misaligned or not functioning as it normally would. Orthotics can be made for many parts of the body, including the arms, legs and back, not just the feet. Orthotics are generally made by an orthotist, however foot orthotics are also made by podiatrists and other healthcare professionals may also be involved in the prescription and production of orthotics.

Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease.

A condition that often occurs in children aged between 10 and 16 years, it causes tenderness and recurrent pain over the tibial tuberosity (just below the knee).


Another name for bone spurs, which are bony projections that form along joints and are often seen in conditions such as arthritis.


The excessive movement of the foot as it rolls inward on the ankle. This movement may predispose to problems in the ankle or knees.


Paget’s disease.

A bone wasting condition that increases the risk of bone fractures and may lead to other symptoms such as bow-legs.Patella.
The knee cap.

Pes cavus.

A foot with an excessively high arch is said to be a cavus foot, and may involve symptoms such as areas of increased pressure and reduced shock absorption.

Plantar fasciitis.

A common, painful foot condition referring to the inflammation of the band of tissue that runs from the heel along the arch of the foot. May be associated with heel spurs.

Posterior tibial tendonitis.

Is inflammation of the posterior tibial tendon. Patients with posterior tibial tendonitis typically complain of pain in the inside of the foot and ankle. They also sometimes have problems associated with an unstable gait and flat feet.


Refers to the ‘normal’ action of the foot as you apply weight through the gait cycle. As the foot strikes the ground a specific series of movements takes place called pronation. Essentially, the heel and ankle roll inwards after the heel strikes the ground, and as weight is transferred to the midfoot, the arch flattens out


Quinti varus deformity.

This occurs when the little toe overlaps the adjacent toes.



This is condition caused by malnutrition which may include symptoms such as bow legs


Sever’s disease.

Mostly occurs in active teenagers when the heel bone is trying to fuse. Suffers experience pain in one or both of their heels when walking. It is most common with growing adolescents between 9 and 14 years of age.Shin-


A generic term for exercise related pain in the lower leg, this may relate to symptoms including stress fractures of the tibia, and increases pressure inside the muscular compartments of the leg amongst many other symptoms.


A sprain occurs when a ligament is stretched too far or torn. Ankle sprains are one of the more common sprains.


A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon.

Stress Fractures.

A overuse injury manifesting as microfractures in the shaft of bones, leading to bone weakness and an increased risk of complete fractures.


Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome.

The tarsal tunnel is in the foot between bones and overlying fibrous tissue on the inside of the heel. The primary nerve in the tunnel is called the posterior tibial nerve. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is when this nerve is pinched or similar.


The large bone that runs down the front of the lower leg, the tibial tubercle is the bony area just below the knee.Turf toe is a pain at the base of the big toe, located at the ball of the foot. The condition is usually caused from either constantly pushing off when running or jumping or from jamming the toe. Apart from primary pain other symptoms include stiffness and swelling



Vascular problems.

Individuals with vascular problems may be at increased risk of foot problems such as ulceration and for this reason should periodically have their feet examined by a podiatrist or other suitable health care professional.



Small growths that appear on many parts of the body; the human papiloma causes these. Warts on the feet can be managed with the care of a podiatrist.



For some conditions X-rays are needed for a complete diagnosis, and to ascertain the appropriate management.